- Nutrient Modification Diets such as renal diet, low salt diet, diabetic diet
- Texture Modification Diets such as puree diet, mechanical soft diet, liquid diet
- Food Allergy or Food Avoidance Diet such as gluten free or lactose free diet
- Supplemental Diet where additional supplements or fortification is added
What is a Preference Centered Therapeutic Diet?
A diet that takes into account the resident’s clinical condition or limitations, in conjunction with personal preferences, when there is a nutritional indication. It is designed based upon resident’s preferences and desires for their quality of life. Residents goals are also at the center of a preference centered diet. Residents must be provided with all of their nutritional options, detailed description of the need for therapeutic diets, and the consequences and risks associated with not following the recommended diet. A resident needs to be provided with every alternative available, as well as the recommended time frame for the diet.
Examples of a Preference Centered Therapeutic Diet?
Dan has been exhibiting chocking during his meals following his stoke. He has undergone a full evaluation by his doctor and speech therapist who both deemed Dan has dysphagia. Following this diagnosis Dan was prescribed a puree diet. His care partners then started turning his usual meals into puree form. Dan was presented with pureed steak, carrots, pork, and other foods he used to enjoy before the diet restriction. Dan has not enjoyed those pureed meals and has lost 20 pounds in one month. One of the care partners noticed that Dan will eat puree items that naturally come in puree form such as mashed potatoes, smoothies, yogurts and puddings. After these observations, a nutrition specialist created a menu for Dan that includes only puree items in their natural form. Additional flavors of mashed potatoes and yogurt along with other naturally puree foods were ordered in order to fill up Dan’s week with a healthy diet with a variety of choices.
Angie has heart disease. After an examination, Angie’s doctor placed her on a salt restricted diet. Following these orders, Angie has refused to eat most foods and lost 15 pounds. She complained that her food tasted bland and she did not want it. Angie’s care partners contacted her doctor and explained the dilemma and requested that the doctor look into liberalizing Angie’s diet. Angie was also explained in detail the risks and consequences of putting salt back into her diet with her current heart disease. Knowing all the risks, Angie deemed that at 90 years old her Goal was not prolonging longevity, but having the best quality of life. It was her preference to add salt back to her diet, understanding the risks. Her doctor felt that Angie and her family understood the risks and liberalized her salt intake. Angie gained 10 pounds the following month. She was able to enjoy her food again.
The Take Away..
Although therapeutic diets are sometimes necessary and beneficial to a resident’s health, a preference centered therapeutic diet just enhances the benefits buy focusing on the residents’ goals, desires, preferences, along with their nutritional needs and doctor’s orders. All five components work together to create a therapeutic diet that is beneficial to residents’ health yet minimally negatively impacts their desires and quality of life.